In Sub-Saharan Africa, economic development was basically stalled before the year 2000. Economic growth was low; the poverty rate was high and not falling; and disease burdens were enormous and increasing in the case of malaria and HIV/AIDS. The MDGs played an important role, together with other factors, in helping to reverse these adverse trends. The accelerated improvement in poverty reduction in Sub-Saharan Africa after 2000 may be seen in Table 1 for several key MDG indicators, as well as for the overall growth of GDP.*
Poverty. During the period 1990-1999, the proportion of the population living on less than 1.25 dollars a day was rising in Africa. It fell at a rate of 1.6 percent per annum during 1999-2010.
Under-5 Mortality Rate. The rate of decline more than doubled (from 1.4 percent per annum during 1990-2000 to 3.1 percent per annum during 2000-2010).
Malaria Deaths. Malaria was rising dramatically during 1990-2000, as a result of declining efficacy of the first and second-line medicines. Malaria deaths declined at an estimated rate of 2.1 percent per annum during 2010.
Maternal Mortality. The rate of decline more than doubled (from 1.4 percent per annum to 3.8 percent per annum after 2000).
Real GDP. The economic growth rate per annum more than doubled (from 2.3 percent per annum to 5.7 percent per annum).
Sources of Data
In all cases, the data refer to the Sub-Saharan Africa region. The data are for the years 1990, 2000, and 2010 except in the case of poverty, where the World Bank reports for the year 1999 rather than 2000, and for U5MR for the year 2011 rather than 2010. Annual growth rates are calculated for 10-year intervals as 100*[(Xt+1/Xt)(1/10) – 1], except in the case of poverty, where the intervals are for 9 and 11 years respectively, and for U5MR, where there second interval is for 11 years.
Poverty. The headcount poverty rate is from the World Bank, 2005 PPP at the $1.25-per- day poverty line.
Under-5 Mortality. The under-five mortality rate is taken from UNICEF et al., “Levels and Trends in Child Mortality Report 2012,” Table 1.
Malaria Deaths. Malaria deaths for all of Sub-Saharan Africa are found by summing over all age groups and all countries in the Sub-Saharan Africa region.
Maternal Mortality. Maternal mortality rate is from Appendix 6 of WHO, “Trends in Maternal Mortality: 1990-2010.”
Real GDP. Growth of real GDP for Sub-Saharan Africa is from the IMF’s World Economic Outlook database. Annual rates of change are used to calculate an index of real GDP with 1990=100, and then 10-year average annual growth rates are calculated. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2013/01/weodata/index.aspx
*The benefits of the MDGs extend beyond Africa. For the developing countries as a whole, economic growth was significantly faster after 2000, poverty reduction was faster, and improvements in key health indicators (under-5 mortality rates and maternal mortality rates) were also faster.
**The first four indicators in the Table are MDG indicators. Real GDP growth is not an MDG indicator but is an important contributor to the MDGs.